Empower informed decision-making with evidence-based knowledge about cannabis and its applications.

Cannabis Strains


Cannabinoid System in Medicine
  • Cannabis sativa appeared about 60 AD in the Pharmacopoeia of Pedanius Dioscorides (Greek physician, pharmacologist, botanist, and author of De materia medica), who served in the Roman army under Claudius and Nero.
  • During sixteenth century England:

The Herbal of John Gerard (1597) in England recommended cannabis for easing the earache, and the Herbal of Nicholas Culpeper (1653) recommended its use to alleviate inflammations and ease the pain of gout and tumours

  • In the 1960s, 49-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) was first isolated and identified by Mechoulam and Gaoni in Israel
  • The chemical synthesis of new potent cannabinoid derivatives and analogues allowed Devane to identify specific binding sites in the brain
  • Definite proof of their existence came from the molecular cloning of the: Cannabinoid type 1 (CB₂) receptor in brain but also the heart and vasculature Cannabinoid type 2 (CB₂) receptor in immune cells

Devane WA, Dysarz FA, Johnson LS, Melvin LS, Howlett AC. Determination and characterization of a cannabinoid receptor in rat brain. Mol Pharmacol. 1988;34:605-613 Mechoulam R, Gaoni Y. The absolute configuration of delta-1-tetrahydrocannabinol, the major active constituent of hashish. Tetrahedron Lett. 1967:12:1109-1111 House of Lords Science and Technology- Ninth Report 1998. Science and Technology Committee Publications

Cannabis Sativa

Cannabis sativa – annual herbaceous flowering plant indigenous to eastern Asia

Cultivated throughout recorded history for: industrial fiber, seed oil, food, recreation, religious and spiritual moods and medicine

First classified by Carl Linnaeus in 1753

Constituents include than 500 compounds, such as:

Cannabinoids (> 113) Terpenes (>120)
Monoterpenes Sesquiterpenes
49-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) a-Pinene a-Humulene
Cannabidiol (CBD) Myrcene Caryophyllene
Cannabinol (CBN) Linalool
Cannabigerol (CBG) Limonene
  • Strains are cultivated for specific ratios (sativa vs. indica)
Endogenous Cannabinoid System


Cannabinoid receptors

  • CB1 – Psychoactive effects
  • Expressed in the brain, heart, and vasculature

CB2-No psychoactive effects

  • Expressed in the immune system

Endogenous ligands:


  • Derivatives of arachidonic acid
  • Anandamide
  • 2-arachidonoylglyercerol (2-AG)
Proposed Therapeutics Uses for CB1 Receptors


  • Anti-emetics
  • Appetite stimulants (cancer)
  • Analgesics for the relief of neuropathic pain


  • Obesity
  • Metabolic disorder





Trichomes are small hairs or other outgrowth from the epidermis of a plant, typically unicellular and glandular. In cannabis trichomes function as a defense mechanism. When female cannabis plants begin to produce flowers in the wild, they often become vulnerable to various insects and animals as well as non-living environmental variables such as potentially harmful UV rays.


A stigma is a part of the flower of a cannabis plant. It is hair-like projection that grows from the pistil of the female plant’s flower. In a unisex environment, the stigma serves no purpose. However, in the wild or a dual-sex environment, the stigma will collect pollen from male plants so that buds can grow seeds.


Cola is a botanical term that describes the flowering site of a female plant.


The term bract refers to the female flower bract of a plant. The flower bract looks similar to a leaf, but is different than the plant’s foliage and is also not a flower petal. It is actually a modified or specialized leaf.


Cannabis fan leaves are the large, primary leaves of the plant. Fan leaves can be used to judge the overall health of the marijuana plant. Fan leaves are also used for photosynthesis.

Safety Considerations for Cannabis Use

What is CBD?

CBD stands for Cannabidiol, one of approximately 100 cannabinoids found in the Cannabis or Hemp plant.

What is the difference between Hemp and Marijuana?

It’s a common misconception that hemp and marijuana are two different species of plant.  In fact, they’re not distinct species at all. They’re just two different names for cannabis, a type of flowering plant in the Cannabaceae family.  While science doesn’t differentiate between “hemp” and “marijuana,” the law does.  Legally, the key difference between the two is tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content.

THC is one of many cannabinoids, or chemicals found in the cannabis plant. It’s the one that’s primarily responsible for the “high” associated with cannabis.

The term “hemp” is used to mean cannabis that contains 0.3 percent or less THC content by dry weight.

Legally, “marijuana” refers to cannabis that has more than 0.3 percent THC by dry weight. THC content can vary among cannabis plants. Some strains are bred to be higher in THC than others.

How does CBD Work?

The body produces endocannabinoids, which are neurotransmitters that bind to cannabinoid receptors in your nervous system. Studies have shown that CBD may help reduce chronic pain by impacting endocannabinoid receptor activity, reducing inflammation and interacting with neurotransmitters.

What are Endocannabinoids?

The endocannabinoid system is made up of cannabinoid receptors and cannabinoids that are produced naturally by the body. These are not the same cannabinoids that are synthesized by the Cannabis plant, however they do produce similar properties and effects. These cannabinoids interact with our cannabinoid receptors naturally found in our body and brain. Current research suggests that our endocannabinoid system promotes homeostasis for our bodies by interacting with a wide range of body systems.

What are Terpenes?

Terpenes are the oils that give plants their smell & taste. Terpenes can be found in fruits, herbs, plants, and even Cannabis! Similar to cannabinoids, terpenes also bind to receptors and are suggested by current research to have diverse potential health benefits. Terpenes contribute to the entourage effect.

What is the Entourage Effect?

The entourage effect refers to the concept that a combination of cannabinoids works better together than separately.  Simply put, the thesis is that combining cannabis compounds creates a different physical or psychological impact than a single compound on its own.

What are some of the other Cannbinoids?

CBG, or cannabigerol, has been studied mainly as an anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, and antibacterial.  Those suffering from skin disorders and discomfort may find the inflammation relief they are looking for in CBG. One promising study found that CBG may help to reduce intraocular pressure with less optical toxicity than either THC or CBD. Other studies reported benefits for bone growth, neurodegeneration, and mood stabilization. Reviews regarding CBG alone for pain have not been as favorable as for CBD and THC. It is non-intoxicating.

THCv works in tandem with THC. THCv’s full chemical name is tetrahydrocannabivarin. The name isn’t the only similarity to THC, as their chemical structures are also closely related. The effects of THCv, however, are very different. Studies on THCv have shown that it can help to curb your appetite, protect your neurological pathways, and work as an anti-convulsive.

CBN (short for Cannabinol) is a lesser-known cannabinoid. In nature, CBN is found in aging cannabis plants and can increase the effect of THC when smoked. THC degrades into CBN. By itself, CBN is credited with producing a relaxing, sleepy effect. A study by Steep Hill Labs has claimed that CBN, even in low doses, has a similar effect upon the body as a mild pharmaceutical sedative. Those suffering from insomnia, muscle spasms, and even ALS may find relief in CBN. People should not drive or operate machinery when learning how this cannabinoid affects them. A January 2020 article indicated potential benefits for ADHD, at least more effective than THC.

CBC is another non-intoxicating cannabinoid generally found in cannabis that has been grown in a tropical location. CBC, cannabichromene, is credited as an anti-inflammatory, antifungal, and antidepressant compound. One study published in the Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics concluded that CBC aided in reducing the size of tumors and cancer, particularly in cases of a certain type of breast cancer.



The Students


Our research is dedicated to understanding how each compound in cannabis interacts with the human body.


Cannabigerol (CBG)

Aids sleep, inhibits cancer cell growth, promotes bone growth, slows bacterial growth.

Cannabichromene (CBC)

Inhibits cancer cell growth, reduces inflammation, relieves pain, promotes conc growth.

Cannabidiols (CBD)

Antibacterial, inhibits carcer cell growth, reduces seizures, reduces blood sugar levels, reduces inflammation, reduces vomiting and nausea, relieves pain, relieves anxiety, spasms, reats psoriasis, neuro-protective.

  • Suppresses muscle and intestine
Tetrahydrocannabinoids (THC)

Stress relief, pain relief, helps with ADHD, Alzheimer’s disease, Cancer, Fibromyalgia, IBD, Crohn’s disease, migraines, FTSD, and many more.

Cannabinol (CBN)

Appetite stimulant, antibiotic, pain reliver, anti-asthmatic, sedative and sleep aid.



Medicinal uses include: Anti-anxiety, anti-inflammatory, anti-psychotic, anti-oxidant, pain, insomnia.

Also found in pepper, cloves, hops, basil & oregano

Peppery, woody aroma


Medical uses include: Anti-depressant, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, stress relief.

Also found in citrus, juniper, peppermint

Citrus aroma


Medicinal uses include. Analgesic, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, helps with insomnia,

pain relief, muscle relaxation.

Also found in mango, thyme, citrus

Herbal, musky aroma


Medicinal uses include: Analgesic, anti-depressant, anti-epileptic, anti-inflammatory, anti-psychotic, sedating and calming effects.

Also found in lavender, citrus, rosewood

Floral, citrus, spicy aroma


Medicinal uses include: anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, pain relief, appetite suppressant

Also found in hops and coriander

Woody and earthy aroma


Medical uses include: anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, sedative

Also found in nutmeg, tea tree, apples, cumin, lilacs

Herbal, floral and piney aroma


Medical uses include: anti-oxidant, neuroprotectant, anti-microbial

Also found in geraniums, tobacco, honey, passionfruit

Sweet and floral aroma

  • Medicinal uses include: anti-inflammation, bronchodilator, expectorant and anti-septic
  • Also found in pine needles, conifers, sage
  • Sweet pine aroma


Russo, Ethan B. “Taming THC: Potential Cannabis Synergy and Phytocannabinoid-Terpenoid Entourage Effects. British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 163, no. 7. Aug. 2011, pp. 1344-1364. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2011.01238.x.